2. Problem beim Wiederaufbau – Sozialer Wohnungsbau

In Rikuzentakata ist ein Gebäudekomplex bestehend aus 3 acht – und drei 9 geschossigen Apartmenthäusern mit 301 Sozialwohnungen. Wahrscheinlich werden davon 206 bezogen, ca. 25% werden allein lebende ältere Personen sein. 95 Wohnungen werden leerstehen. Die Vereinsamung ist vorprogrammiert.
Ein weiteres Problem ist, dass die Feuerwehr bisher nur Leitern für 15 Meter

hohe Gebäude besitzt (5 stöckige Gebäude). Diese Gebäude sind doppelt so hoch. Die Leitern müssen beschafft werden und die Feuerwehr muss geschult werden.

岩手

<災害公営住宅>コミュニティーづくり模索

2016年08月01日 月曜日
岩手県内最大の災害公営住宅「県営栃ケ沢アパート」

 岩手県陸前高田市で1日、県内最大の災害公営住宅「県営栃ケ沢アパート」の入居が始まる。9階建てと8階建ての2棟で、市全体の3割以上を占める計301戸を整備した。だが、持ち家が中心の市民に高層集合住宅はなじみが薄く、新たなコミュニティーづくりや防災対策が課題となっている。
アパートは高台の市役所仮庁舎近くに立地する。県大船渡土木センターによると、現段階の入居見込みは206世帯。このうち、1人暮らしの高齢者は24.8%に及ぶ。加えて入居者は市内各地から集まるとみられる。
高齢者らの相談に応じる陸前高田市地域包括支援センターの担当者は「都市型の住まいに慣れていたはずの神戸市でも、阪神大震災後に孤独死が出た。嫌になってストレスをためたり引きこもったりしないか」と心配する。
県営のため、住民サービスを担う市に入居者の詳しい情報が入らず、ケアの支障になりかねない。
県は市などと協議し、同意を得た入居世帯全員の氏名と性別、年齢の個人情報を、市や市社協、民生委員に提供することを決めた。
管理人や行政区長、班長の選任、自治会設立、入居者間交流といった課題にも連携して対応する。県大船渡地域振興センター復興推進課の米内敏明課長は「規模が大きく、コミュニティーづくりに危機感を持っている。住民の合意形成を大切に進めたい」と話す。
防災面でも懸念材料がある。東日本大震災前に中高層建物が少なかった市には消防のはしご車がない。栃ケ沢アパートをはじめ、7階以上の災害公営住宅が相次いで建ち、高さ15メートル以上の建物は9棟に増えた。
はしご車の整備については消防庁の指針でおおむね10棟を目安としているが、維持管理を含めた財源や職員態勢の問題もある。
市消防本部によると、災害公営住宅の部屋壁は鉄筋で隣室の延焼を防げるといい、玄関側とベランダ側からそれぞれ水平方向に避難しやすい構造になっている。同本部の担当者は「はしご車がなくても消防隊が支障なく上階に向かえる」と説明。今後は防火講習会を開き、入居者の不安解消に努める。

http://sp.kahoku.co.jp/tohokunews/201608/20160801_33005.html

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Otsuchi, Return of a Perilous Beauty

 No1-2016-03Otsuchi

A March 2015 view of the progress of the incremental landfill operations in centrol Otsuchi that began in 2013 after debris-clearing. To the left is the district of Ando, with its fishing jetty protruding into the harbor; across the Kozuchi River to the right is Nobematsu, now connected by a temporary span that replaced the original bridge and its six-meter high floodgates.
A tsunami-battered town tries to get back on its feet: struggle, conflict, bureaucracy and, yes, hope.

 

by Charles Pomeroy

Not all has gone smoothly in the town of Otsuchi as it struggles to recover from the tsunami devastation wreaked upon it five years ago. (See my story, “The Perilous Beauty of Otsuchi,” in the April, 2011 edition of No. 1 Shimbun.) For starters, the loss of its mayor, Koki Kato, together with key department heads and the more than 30 experienced staff that made up a quarter of the town’s civil servants meant that there was no one to immediately get to work on a master plan for recovery. It wasn’t until January 2012 that a draft was finally completed, under a new mayor, Yutaka Ikarigawa.

Mayor Ikarigawa was faced with a number of tough issues, from organizing housing for survivors to sorting out land problems for the dead and missing. And over the next several years some progress was made, including a partial revival of the fisheries industry and construction of new residences to replace the temporary structures housing survivors.

But two key projects in the master plan led to discontent, as the long-range view of those who had forged the plan clashed with the more immediate desires of the survivors. One was a plan to raise the ground level in central Otsuchi by 2.5 meters; the other, to build a huge seawall 14.5 meters high.

After months of uncertainty, many displaced townspeople could not wait another six years and departed for other locales.

The plan to raise the ground level, intended as a safeguard against smaller tsunami and future rises in the sea level, will bring it up to the level of the entry road from National Highway 45 and the new town offices, formerly the burned-out elementary school. It is a six-year project, started in 2012 with debris clearing, followed by incremental landfill scheduled through 2016, and finally ending with a year of waiting for it all to settle before rebuilding can begin in 2018. But after months of uncertainty following the tsunami, many displaced townspeople could not wait another six years and departed for other locales.

THE PLAN TO BUILD the huge seawall – favored by Tokyo bureaucrats, but with the responsibility in the hands of the prefecture – has yet to get underway. Strong doubts have been expressed about its usefulness in protecting the town against future, perhaps even larger, tsunami. Critics also say that any concrete structure of this kind will deteriorate and require replacement in 50 years, which will mean another huge outlay of tax money. They prefer an enhanced system of tsunami alerts and evacuation routes, which are already included in the master plan for central Otsuchi.

In particular, opposition was voiced by the fisheries folk in Akahama, which is also home to Tokyo University’s International Coastal Research Center (ICRC). Akahama also has a walkway to Horaijima, an islet known to most Japanese from a popular 1960s NHK puppet program Hyokkori Hyotan-jima that featured a popular theme song. Many of its residents were lost in the 2011 tsunami, opponents said, because the earlier seawall at 6.5 meters had blocked their view of the “drawback” – receding water from the harbor that preceded the onslaught – that would have alerted them to seek higher ground. In their opinion, a seawall 14.5 meters high would just make such future situations even worse.

Opponents had their point made for them with the release in April, 2015, of a documentary by director Haruko Konishi, titled Akahama Rock’n Roll. The film makes a strong case for the more traditional fishery environment rather than a high seawall. Even Akie Abe, the prime minister’s wife, expressed sympathy for the opponents’ cause at a UN Disaster Prevention Conference in Sendai last year, according to newspaper reports.

After losing almost 10 percent of its 15,239 citizens to the tsunami (one of the largest losses among the affected towns), Otsuchi’s population continues to drop. In fact, it had fallen by 23.2 percent by the end of 2015, according to a report in Asahi Shimbun. This is far and away the largest decrease among the coastal communities affected by the tsunami, with the next highest being Rikuzentakata at 15.2 percent. The reasons were various. Some former residents who had evacuated to inland towns just opted not to return to the gutted community. But the biggest hit came from the post-tsunami exodus of younger people looking for work or schooling elsewhere.
Today, Otsuchi has become a town occupied mostly by retirees and transient workers.

Aside from cleanup and landfill work and rebuilding, long-term jobs that can help persuade locals to stay are in short supply to this day. Although the partially recovered fishery industry continues to offer opportunities, these jobs seem to offer little appeal for the younger generation. And though MAST – Otsuchi’s major shopping center that attracted many residents of surrounding communities – reopened in December 2011, its consumer base began eroding after 2013 as a result of increasing competition from shopping centers in nearby towns, especially the Aeon shopping center in nearby Kamaishi.

Driving home the reality of a shrinking population was the merger of three elementary schools in April 2013. Today, Otsuchi has become a town occupied mostly by retirees and transient workers.

TO ENCOURAGE REBUILDING IN Otsuchi, government subsidies totaling ¥5 million are on offer to qualifying families. But no rebuilding can take place in the town center until 2018, and those who want to build in other areas face escalating construction costs. That is assuming, of course, that a construction company can be found, for even local governments are having difficulty in obtaining bids for their projects. Costs have been rising not only from demand in the stricken areas of Sanriku, but also from the general upgrading of the national infrastructure by the Abe administration, a situation further aggravated by the decision to hold the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.

These developments have fed growing cynicism among survivors all along the Sanriku coast. Many sense they are being abandoned, or at least having their futures downgraded in favor of other government projects. These feelings have only increased following the decision to hold the Olympics. And when the central government recently announced an end to the intensive five-year phase of Tohoku reconstruction and a reduction in such funds for the next five-year phase from fiscal 2016, this only added to their pessimism.

Despite these negatives, one of our family members, a brother-in-law in his mid-60s who spent most of his adult life in Tokyo, returned to Otsuchi after retiring in 2015. He now works part time to supplement his retirement income while looking for new opportunities in his hometown. So far he has found none.

Many sense they are being abandoned, or at least having their futures downgraded in favor of other government projects.

Still, all is not lost, and perhaps the long-range planning of Ikarigawa’s experts, representing central and prefectural governments as well as academia and knowledgeable locals, will see a new dawning in Otsuchi. But he won’t be in a position to lead it. Difficulties with his master plan’s implementation eventually led to his defeat in the August 2015 election. His victorious opponent, Kozo Hirano, ran on a platform calling for a review of the planned reconstruction projects.

In addition to the slow but ongoing recovery of the fisheries, positive signs include the revival of the old railway line by Sanriku Railways in 2021 and the completion of the new Sanriku coastal expressway in 2022. Both will make Otsuchi more accessible for commerce and tourism as well as much easier to live in, especially for students who had pleaded for a return of the railway to enable commuting to schools in other towns. This should also increase the town’s attraction for families with school-age children.

OUR HOME WAS AMONG the 3,359 in Otsuchi destroyed by the tsunami. My wife Atsuko and I plan to begin rebuilding in 2018 on our small parcel of land at the southern edge of the central district, which will allow us to continue our retirement that began there in 2004. It will again put us within a five-minute walk of the family gravesite at Dainenji, and give us easy access to that mountain’s scenic hiking trail.

Sadly, we will no longer be joined on these hikes by our favorite companion, Atsuko’s elder sister, Noriko, who had lived nearby. She and her husband, Yuji, were both lost to the tsunami. Her remains were not identified until August of 2011 and his were never found. The addition of her ashes to the family gravesite has made our visits for the annual Obon Buddhist observances even more poignant.

Half of our neighbors were also lost to the tsunami and, apparently, none among the surviving families will return. So we will start afresh with new neighbors, but bedrock support from Atsuko’s brother and other relatives as well as friends dating back to her childhood.

No1-2016-03Pommag
The author’s feature on Otsuchi in the April 2011 earthquake special.

And with any luck, some of our favorite local shops will restart their businesses. In particular, I would like to see the reappearance of Akabu Sakaya, which made it a point to keep my favorite gin and vermouth in stock. ❶

Charles Pomeroy retired from journalism 12 years ago. He is the author of Tsunami Reflections—Otsuchi Remembered.

http://www.fccj.or.jp/number-1-shimbun/item/757-return-of-a-perilous-beauty.html

検証変貌するまち>読めぬ集客 出店迷う

左手の山裾に建つ災害公営住宅前のかさ上げ地が新たな市街地になる=2月10日、陸前高田市

◎(上)未来図への不安

東日本大震災の津波で壊滅した陸前高田市中心部の高田地区に、海抜12メートルにかさ上げされた約100ヘクタールの大地が誕生する。
ことし市街地区域で商業施設の集積が始まるが、住宅の整備はまだ数年かかる。新しい街にどれだけの住民が戻るのか。予測ははっきりせず、商業者は出店すべきか悩む。
先行する26ヘクタールの新市街地で今夏、大型商業施設が着工する。周辺に商店街、さらに周縁には住宅地。公共施設やJR大船渡線バス高速輸送システム(BRT)の陸前高田駅を設ける。市が描く未来図だ。

<投資見合わず>
市が貸す商店街用地の地代は被災事業者なら1平方メートル当たり年311~340円と格安だ。仮設店舗の集積を狙うが、1月末に締め切った借地申請は29事業所にとどまった。
地元商工会が2014年に実施した調査で、中心市街地での再開希望は118事業者に上っていた。市商工観光課は「スタート時としては想定内の数字」と受け止めるが、先行きは見えない。
仮設商店街でカフェを営む太田明成さん(49)は大型店へのテナント入居を考えた。だが家賃と共益費が震災前の倍となる月20万円と分かり、諦めた。
新店舗建設の見積もりでは自己負担が1500万円を超えた。「月の売り上げを30万円増やさないといけないが、投資に見合うだけの集客があるのか。借金を返すための出店にならないか」。自問を繰り返す。
仮設を限りに廃業を決めた人もいる。布団店経営の菅野幾夫さん(66)は「年も年だし、後継者もいない。潮時だ」と創業140年の老舗を畳むつもりだ。
高田地区の土地区画整理事業の計画戸数は震災前と同規模の1560。対照的に市が15年6月、仮設住民を対象にした住宅再建意向調査で、地区内の高台やかさ上げ地を希望したのは230世帯(15年9月集計)にとどまる。しかも家を建てられるのは17年度以降だ。
既に地区内の災害公営住宅に住む人は調査対象に入っていない。実際の居住世帯はこれより増えるとみられるが、市も実数をつかみきれていない。

<生活の場分散>
数年間は近隣住民がほとんどいない。地域経済を支える復興作業員は減っていく。病院や学校は高台に移り、生活の場が分散する。市街地には買い物や飲食の機能しかない。そんな街の姿が出店意欲を鈍らせる。
「またシャッター街をつくるのか、と言う人もいる。でも、誰かに設けてもらった街で愚痴を言いながら商売したいか。考えに考え、自分たちの手で魅力ある街を実現しよう」
地元商工会の中心市街地企画委員長の磐井正篤さん(59)は勉強会の度にげきを飛ばす。商店街に和雑貨店を出すが、もちろん不安だ。
「人工的に街を築く壮大な実験。でも、身の丈より少し背伸びした街にしたい」。今は笑って前へ歩くしかないと覚悟を呼び掛ける。(太楽裕克)

津波被害を防ぐため、まちが変わる。巨大事業が進む中、被災者は暮らしや日々の営みで厳しい選択を迫られた。復興まちづくりで生じた課題を追う。
2面に関連記事、

http://www.kahoku.co.jp/tohokunews/201603/20160306_33006.html

Kinder in Tohoku, fast 5 Jahre nach dem Tsunami

Wie geht es den Kindern in den zerstörten Gebieten? Haben sie die Erinnerungen an den Tsunami und den Verlust von nahe stehenden Verwandten und Freunden verarbeitet? Wie verläuft der Alltag in den vorübergehenden Gebäuden der Ersatzschule und das Leben im Container. Es gibt keinen Platz, in Ruhe Schularbeiten zu machen.

【東北の子ども達へ、あなたができること】
津波で家を流され、学ぶ場を失った子ども達が、被災地には残されています。
東北の子ども達のために、一人ひとりができること、考えてみませんか?

被災地負担、反対相次ぐ 復興相、首長らと会談 復興予算

2015年4月12日05時00分

 東日本大震災復興予算をめぐり、竹下亘復興相は11日、被災した岩手県市町村長らと会談した。2016年度以降は被災地側の一部負担を検討する考えを伝えたが、自治体側からは反対意見が相次いだ。復興相は近く宮城、福島両県も訪れるが、復興予算の枠組みが固まる6月までせめぎ合いが続きそうだ。

岩手県釜石市ログイン前の続きで開かれた会合には、竹下復興相や小泉進次郎復興政務官らが出席し、被災地からは野田武則・釜石市長ら13市町村の首長らが参加した。

冒頭、竹下復興相は「復興の基幹事業は引き続き国費で対応していく」とあいさつ。その後、約2時間の会談は非公開だった。終了後、野田市長は「(国から)一部地方負担を検討しなければならないという発言もあった」と明らかにした。復興予算を国が全額負担する集中復興期間を今年度で終え、16年度以降は復興予算の枠組みを見直す考えを示されたという。

岩手県幹部によると、竹下復興相は「復興に使うお金は、国民からいただいた税金ということをおさえていただかなければ」と語ったという。

被災地側は、復興予算の地元負担に反対する姿勢を示した。大槌町の大水敏弘副町長は「市町村ごとに被害と復興の度合いが違う。資材や作業員の確保が難しい事情もくんでほしい」と訴えたという。

町では市街地のかさ上げ工事が始まったばかり。会談後、大水副町長は「町は重傷を負ってリハビリ中の段階。人口1万人の町が政令指定市並みの額の大事業を進めており、国に支援してほしい」と述べた。

戸羽太・陸前高田市長も「財政や復興状況をみて議論してもらわないと困る」と話した。市は今年度、市街地かさ上げと高台造成工事に約300億円を充てる。震災前の予算の2・7倍の規模だ。「社会教育施設や市役所も建てないといけない」とも語った。

市町村が懸念するのは厳しい財政状況だ。財政力指数は、震災前の10年度でも大槌町が0・31、陸前高田市が0・27と、全国平均の0・53を下回っていた。

会談では被災地側で負担する具体的な内容について説明がなかったという。終了後、竹下復興相は報道陣に「地方負担について共通の認識はできた」と話した。岩手県の中村一郎復興局長は「被災自治体は、自分の財布が痛まないから何でも国にやってもらったらいいという思いでは決してない」と語った。

(竹山栄太郎、斎藤徹、田渕紫織)

http://digital.asahi.com/articles/DA3S11700665.html?rm=150

Fighting to recover from the ocean’s wrath

BY

SPECIAL TO THE JAPAN TIMES

On April 11, Wataru Takeshita, the minister for reconstruction of the areas most seriously affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, met in Kamaishi with local government representatives to discuss the budget for Iwate Prefecture. After the meeting, the mayor of Kamaishi spoke to the press and said Takeshita told them the central government would continue paying for reconstruction work through next year, but after that he expected the prefecture and municipalities to cover part of the burden themselves.

“Please understand that the money we spend on reconstruction is from taxes levied on people nationwide,” Takeshita reportedly said during the meeting, which was closed to the media.

According to an article in the Asahi Shimbun, the local governments in attendance rejected the minister’s remarks, mainly because he neglected to go into detail about how much of a burden he was talking about and what sorts of things they would be paying for. The mayor of the city of Rikuzentakata seemed offended by the government attitude.

“They must discuss our financial situation and the reconstruction process,” he told an Asahi reporter. “Otherwise, we can’t envision a future for ourselves.”

Rikuzentakata is currently spending ¥30 billion to elevate levees and prepare higher ground for new residential housing, an amount equivalent to 2.7 times its whole annual budget. “And we still have to build schools and a new city hall,” he added.

Takeshita seemed oblivious to the resistance. He told reporters that he and the local governments “came to a common understanding” regarding division of reconstruction costs. A prefectural representative tried to point out that the municipalities weren’t saying “the central government should pay for everything and we pay nothing,” only that there had been no substantive discussion about what would happen after the current reconstruction budget expired in 2016.

As the Asahi presented the story, it read like a classic instance of official condescension, but the situation is more complicated. The report implies that the local governments formed a united front, but as the vice mayor of the town of Otsuchi said, the degree of damage suffered and the amount of reconstruction required differs from one place to another. By treating all the local governments the same way, the agency effectively demonstrates a lack of imagination and coordination, while the media gives the impression that money is the only issue.

Otsuchi, in fact, is the subject of a new documentary by Haruko Konishicalled “Akahama Rock’n Roll.” Akahama is the district closest to the sea and the one that contains the town’s fishing industry. One-10th of Akahama’s residents died in the 2011 tsunami or remain missing. The central subject of the film is the surviving residents’ objections to the central government’s plan to build a 14.5-meter-high seawall along the edge of the community. The rest of the town approved the seawall, or, at least, didn’t object to it.

The budget for construction was set in January 2012, when the town’s residents were still in shock from the disaster and hadn’t had time to think over the plans carefully. Since then, the people of Akahama decided that a better idea would be to move homes in the district to higher ground. The seawall, they contend, causes more problems than it solves. The tsunami, after all, was 22 meters high, so 14.5 meters may not do any good, but in any case, the fishermen of Akahama need to have constant visual contact with the ocean, and not just for the sake of their livelihoods. One reason so many people died in the tsunami was that they didn’t see it coming, since there was already a seawall blocking their line of sight, and that one was only 6.5 meters high.

Akahama is too small to attract the interest of the mass media, but Konishi managed to enlist one powerful supporter: Akie Abe, the wife of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. At the U.N. Disaster Prevention Conference in Sendai in March, she raised the matter of the seawall during an awards ceremony, saying that if you have to destroy the environment in order to safeguard a community from the forces of nature, then something is wrong. Since then, the movie and Akahama have been featured in a number of newspaper articles.

Konishi divides her footage between two principals: Tsutomu Abe (no relation to the prime minister), a fisherman who went back to work a few days after the tsunami, even though it killed his father, and Hiromi Kawaguchi, chairman of the Akahama Reconstruction Committee, who spearheads the local resistance to the seawall. This dual narrative approach toggles between the political aspects of the issue and the less concrete cultural ones.

Abe the fisherman represents the community’s soul, a man whose close relationship with the sea is primal. The tsunami was a tragedy, but, as he says over and over, you can’t fight nature.

“As long as our lives are connected to the ocean,” his mother says, “we have to be here.” And what’s the point of being here if you can’t see the water? When your life is dependent on the sea, you make peace with it as best you can.

People, however, are another matter, and it’s Kawaguchi’s job to fight the powers that try to tell him and those he represents what is best for them. Once the bureaucracy has a notion in its head, it’s difficult to change, and his fellow committee members, worn down by the subtle but relentless force of authority, seem willing to compromise, but Kawaguchi isn’t.

“Life comes from the sea,” he says. “And keeping the sea separate from us destroys life.”

If Konishi’s purpose is to show how a community’s desires should not be discounted even if those desires place it at risk, her movie acutely points out how specific needs can’t be summarily dismissed by logic or taken care of by charity.

“I’m not interested in people’s sympathy,” says Abe as he shucks oysters. “I just want to sell my products.”

Buchbesprechung „Rikuzentakata 2011-2014“ Naoya Hatakeyama

(書評)『陸前高田 2011―2014』 畠山直哉〈著〉

2015年7月5日05時00分

 ◇受容の意志の厳かさ、美しさ

「僕には、自分の記憶を助けるために写真を撮るという習慣がない」。かつて畠山直哉はこのように書いた。写真を撮ることは自分の住む世界をよりよく知ることと同義だった。だが東日本大震災で故郷の陸前高田の風景を喪失すると、この考えは変容を余儀なくされる。故郷にレンズを向け記憶との対話が始まる。

震災前後を収めた『気仙川』に続く本書では、町が再建されるさまがとらえられている。まずは瓦礫(がれき)が撤去されなくてはならない。機械による破壊とはまったく異なる姿を晒(さら)す何百台もの押しつぶされたクルマ。波が瓦礫を持ち上げ鉄骨に引っ掛けて去った後の体育館天井の凄(すさ)まじさ。白砂の浜に林立する松の木の根っこも人間の手が造り出せない猛々(たけだけ)しい形状だ。これら破壊された事物の姿を、彼は厳粛なまでに「津波」の目になって撮っていく。

後半を占めているのは町が再建される様子だ。嵩(かさ)上げされた土地、土を運ぶために巡らされたベルトコンベア、それが川をまたぐためのつり橋、防潮用の鉄板の列。これら人間の技術力を証する、目を引きつけてやまない造形美が、考え抜かれたアングルと色彩で抽出される。そして最後のページに来て気づくのだ。ここに写っている風景は町が完成した暁には消えてなくなるということに。しかもその町が再び津波に呑(の)み込まれないという保証は、どこにもないということに。

写真はどれも非常に美しく、そう感じていいのだろうかと戸惑う人もいるかもしれない。だが、本書は長大な自然史的時間と個人の時間が交差する地点に立たされた人間の報告なのだ。自然の力にもそれに負けまいとする人間の営みにも等価な視線を注いで歩こうとする者の。写真集に流れる美しさの本質は、その受容の意志の厳かさだ。批評ではなく問うことの大切さを伝える。巻末のエッセイが素晴らしい。

評・大竹昭子(作家)

河出書房新社・4212円/はたけやま・なおや 58年、岩手県陸前高田市生まれ。97年、木村伊兵衛写真賞